Network and teams


Royal Museums for Art and History, Brussels


Photo LD réserves

Luc Delvaux

Luc Delvaux, has a PhD in Egyptology (Université de Strasbourg); he also has an International Certificate in African Archaeology (University of Brussels); he is Curator of the Dynastic and Greco-Roman Egypt collections at the Royal Museums of Art and History, and Scientific Collaborator at the University of Brussels. He is in charge of the epigraphic projects of the Royal Museums of Art and History on the site of Elkab (Upper Egypt). He coordinates the research and publication program on the Egyptian collection of the Royal Museums of Art and History. The main projects in the last year are the study and publication of the antiquities of the Amarna Period, and the development of an innovative technology to digitalize the collection of clay magical statuettes of the Middle Kingdom, through the EES Pionneer Belspo Project, which includes a partnership with the ESAT Laboratory of the KU Leuven, and the Service d’Egyptologie of the Université de Liège.



Georges Verly

Georges Verly is an archaeologist and archeometallurgist in non-ferrous metallic production for ancient Egypt. He is a member since 2013 of the Ayn Soukhna excavation team, a Middle Kingdom metallurgical site on the Red Sea coast. A new methodology of research was developed to cross the data resulting from excavations, from analyses and from experiments. The current domains of researches are: for the Middle Kingdom, the processes of smelting, melting and production of copper tools and, for the New Kingdom and the Late Period, melting processes and lost wax technic.

Royal Museum for Central Africa

Alexandre Livingstone Smith

Alexandre Livingstone Smith is an archaeologist at the Heritage Service of the Royal Museum for central Africa, Tervuren (since 2010). He holds a PhD in Philosophy and Letters from the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) (2001) and an International Certificate in African Archaeology from the Université Libre de Bruxelles (1991). He is a scientific collaborator of the CReA-Patrimoine at the ULB and Honorary Research fellow of the School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental studies of the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg and a Member of the executive board of the Society of Africanist Archaeologists (SAFA).


LGM Foto.AfricaMuseum - Copie

Laurence Garenne-Marot

Laurence Garenne-Marot is an archaeometallurgist specialist in copper-based material. She received her initial formation in archaeometallurgy at the Laboratory MASCA and holds a Master of Arts Degree in Oriental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania, USA (MA thesis: Egyptian Copper Metallurgy in the Middle and New Kingdoms). She holds a PhD in African History at the Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne (PhD dissertation : Archéologie d’un métal : le cuivre en Sénégambie entre le Xe et le XIVe siècle). She has done fieldwork in Senegal, Mauritania, Mali and has strong experience in the study of collections in African museums. She has conducted projects with Benoît Mille, metallurgist at the Laboratoire du Centre de Recherches et de Restauration des Musées de France on copper-ingots south of the Sahara and the trans-Saharan trade in metals. She is Research Associate at the Ethnologie Préhistorique Department at Maison de l’Archéologie et de l’Ethnologie à Nanterre (France) and has been recently asked to join the Scientific committee of the CAST:ING project (Copper Alloy Sculpture Techniques: INternational INterdisciplinary Group).



Thierry De Putter works as geologist at the Royal Museums for Central Africa, Brussels since 2003. His focus, since 2006, is the formation of secondary ore deposits, especially in the Katanga Copperbelt, revisiting the formation of heterogenite (CoOOH or maybe HCo02), surface “cobalt caps”, malachite and uranium minerals and deposits. He also concentrates on the societal relevance of geology, addressing issues such as the use of stone materials in Ancient Egypt, and the issue of mineral resources in Central Africa. He holds a PhD in sedimentology.



Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Patrick Degryse is Professor of Archaeometry at the department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and director of the Centre for Archaeological Sciences at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). His main research efforts focus on the use of mineral raw materials in ancient ceramic, glass, metal and building stone production, using petrographical, mineralogical and isotope geochemical techniques. He teaches geology, geochemistry, archaeometry and natural sciences in archaeology, and outside the lab is active in several field projects in the eastern Mediterranean. He is an A. von Humboldt Fellow and European Research Council Grantee.


Frederik Rademakers

Frederik Rademakers is a post-doctoral researcher at the KU Leuven, employed as a member of the EACOM project. He was trained as an engineer at the KU Leuven (BA Mechanical Engineering, MA Geotechnical and Mining Engineering), which he combined with part-time BA studies in Archaeology. His PhD at the UCL Institute of Archaeology (Marie Curie fellow, NARNIA ITN project – supervised by Thilo Rehren and Richard Bussmann) concentrated on ancient crucible metallurgy and provided his first experience with Egyptian metallurgical remains. He is specialised in the technological reconstruction of ancient copper metallurgy, and focuses on embedding analytical and experimental approaches within broader contextualised interpretations of ancient metallurgy. In the EACOM framework, he collaborates closely with all other partners to identify appropriate analytical approaches to the various museum collections and experimental reconstructions, making use of both non-invasive and minimally invasive techniques for chemical and Pb isotope analysis of copper alloys and technological analysis of copper production remains.


 Université libre de Bruxelles


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Nicolas Nikis

Nicolas Nikis is a F.R.S.-FNRS Research fellow and is preparing a PhD thesis on the copper metallurgy in Central Africa under the direction of Pr. P. de Maret at Université libre de Bruxelles. He is Associate Researcher at the Heritage service (RMCA) and Associate Researcher and partner in the ERC Project « KongoKing ». He has already carried out two excavation and prospection campaigns in the Republic of Congo copper region and takes part in the ERC « KongoKing » project fieldwork in the Bas-Congo province in Democratic Republic of Congo. He has also field experience in Benin (ERC project “Crossroads of Empire”, Dir.: Anne Haour) and in preventive archaeology in France and Belgium. As Research Associate at the Heritage service in RMCA, he has experience in the study of material culture in museum collections, including metallurgical and ceramic artefacts. One of his recent research focusses within the RMCA collections is the study of copper ingots from Katanga.